Иностранный язык (основной)

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                                                    Mixed economies
1. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy.
2. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.
3. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
4. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.
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                                                 Neoclassical Economics
1. The most remarkable feature of neoclassical economics is that it reduces many broad categories of market phenomena to considerations of individual choice and, in this way, suggests that the science of economics can be firmly grounded on the basic individual act of subjectively choosing among alternatives.
2. Neoclassical economics began with the so-called marginalist revolution in value theory that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century. Strictly speaking, neoclassical economics is not a school of thought (in the sense of a well-defined group of economists following a single great master) but more a loose amalgam of subschools of thought, each revolving around such acknowledged masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France, and Carl Menger in Austria.
3. In England there was established the Cambridge school a variant of neoclassical economics that stressed continuity with the past achievements of the classical school. In France, the general equilibrium school was founded in 1874. This subschool investigated the mathematical conditions under which all markets could be in equilibrium simultaneously. The Austrian subschool focused on the essential problems of economic organization.
4. What these subschools have in common is the importance they attach to explaining the coordinating features of market processes in terms of plans and subjective evaluations carried out by individuals in the market subject to the constraints of technological knowledge, social custom and practice, and scarcity of resources.
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Light
1. The form of energy that illuminates our world is called light. It usually comes from hot objects, like the sun or fire, but it is also produced by electricity and some chemical reactions. Light is the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum (which includes microwaves, ultraviolet rays, and X-rays) that is invisible to the human eye. It travels at 186,000 miles (300,000 km) per second, and nothing can travel faster. Like other forms of energy, light travels in waves, but it can also travel in packets of energy called quanta. This enables it to travel through a vacuum.
2. Light rays are reflected when they hit a shiny or silvered surface, such as a still pool of water or a mirror. Reflection involves two light rays: the incoming ray and the reflected ray which bounces off the reflecting surface. The two rays are at identical angles to the reflecting surface on either side of an imaginary line.
3. Refraction is a property of all types of energy that travel in waves, including light. Light waves normally travel in straight lines, but when they pass from one transparent material to another, they usually refract, or bend. Refraction occurs because light travels at different speeds in different materials. As light from a material with a low density, such as air, enters a material with a high density, such as water, its speed is reduced. This causes it to bend (except when it enters a material at a right angle).
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Solid
1. Solid is one of the major states of matter. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice or irregularly one.
2. The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics (which also includes liquids). Materials science is primarily concerned with the physical and chemical properties of solids. Solid-state chemistry is especially concerned with the synthesis of novel materials, as well as the science of identification and chemical composition.
3. The forces between the atoms in a solid can take a variety of forms. For example, a crystal of sodium chloride (common salt) is made up of ionic sodium and chlorine, which are held together by ionic bonds. In diamond or silicon, the atoms share electrons and form covalent bonds. In metals, electrons are shared in metallic bonding. Some solids, particularly most organic compounds, are held together with van der Waals forces resulting from the polarization of the electronic charge cloud on each molecule. The dissimilarities between the types of a solid result from the differences between their bonding.
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                                                    Market Economies
1. In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
2. Thus, in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.
3. Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible.